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Security Brief: Emergency Management, Health, and Hazards, Week of March 27, 2022

March 27 - 30, 2022 | Issue 1

Alyssa Schmidt, Megan Bilney, Emergency Management, Health, and Hazards (EMH2) Team

Maisie Beavan, Editor; Jennifer Loy, Chief of Staff

Snow Squall[1]

Date: March 28, 2022

Location: Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, USA

Parties involved: Schuylkill County emergency medical personnel; Schuylkill County Police; Pennsylvania State Police (PSP); Local fire departments; Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT); Schuylkill County residents

The event: Around 1030 local time, a snow squall consisting of sudden heavy snow and winds occurred, causing a 40 car crash on Interstate 81. The collision resulted in at least three fatalities and 20 injured individuals. The impacted area did not receive a squall warning before visibility decreased.[2]

Analysis & Implications:

  • The lack of warning likely caused hospitals to be unable to implement preventative and preparatory measures, likely overwhelming medical personnel with a surge in patients. There is likely an increase of risk of further crashes until visibility improves and roads are cleaned, very likely straining hospital resources and staff. As hospitals and the healthcare systems are likely rebuilding after COVID-19, this strain will likely impact the medical care given to each patient. Reduced medical care will likely reduce recovery and increase poor outcomes, such as death and long-term symptoms.

  • The resulting road closure is very likely to impact emergency services’ response time, and more crashes are likely to occur due to the unexpected snowfall, poor visibility, and traffic build-up. Increased crashes will very likely increase traffic delays, likely impacting domestic transportation routes. Traffic delays will likely affect delivery timelines and likely result in a temporary backlog within the supply chain, with truck drivers likely taking longer routes or pausing deliveries due to the dangerous conditions.

Date: March 28, 2022

Location: Itahari, Sunsari, Nepal

Parties involved: Nepal government; Himal Suraksha Parishad Nepal; Nepal residents; Local medical personnel; Local fire departments; Local police departments

The event: A bomb exploded in a house in Itahari, Nepal, injuring two individuals. Flyers of the new armed group, Himal Suraksha Parishad Nepal, were found at the location of the explosion. In January, Himal Suraksha Parishad Nepal was responsible for an attack in Damak in the Jhapa district.[3] Previously, the Communist Party of Nepal, Biplav, was responsible for most attacks in Nepal.[4]

Analysis & Implications:

  • This attack was able to injure individuals and draw attention to Himal Suraksha Parishad Nepal. This will likely impact the safety of Nepal since future attacks and increased injuries are likely to occur. More individuals are likely to join Himal Suraksha Parishad Nepal as their media presence increases, likely impacting the safety of Nepal since more recruits could plan simultaneous attacks. As the group grows, political unrest in Nepal is likely as the group advocates for a Hindu nation, likely leading to an increase in protests and violence against the government.

  • The explosion very likely dispersed dust into the air, impacting individuals’ health, especially those in the immediate vicinity with asthma and immune-compromised systems. Long-term health impacts are unlikely due to the small scale explosion, but individuals will likely need to seek medical assistance to ensure their respiratory systems were not impacted. Any illnesses that impact the lungs will likely make individuals more susceptible to viruses like COVID-19, so proper treatment should be administered to limit the impact.

________________________________________________________________________ The Counterterrorism Group (CTG)

[1]Snow Squall” by ehpien licensed under Creative Commons

[2] 3 dead after snow squall causes mass pileup on Pennsylvania highway, CNN, March 2022,

[3] Itahari explosion injures 2, Onlinekhabar, March 2022,

[4] Country Reports on Terrorism 2020: Nepal, US Department of State, December 2021,



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